Bleeding and trickling down in hemoglobin is a kind of limbo dance with the patient. How low can you go? Here’s a case report on a trauma patient with a hemoglobin of 0,7 g/dL(!) yielding a hematocrit of 2.2%(!). O neg blood wasn’t available. And due to complicated blood matching PRBC wasn’t ready before 10 hours into his surgery. Not only did he survive those 10 hours with extreme anaemia – his arterial blood gas numbers remained largely normal, with a base excess of -4.

This remarkable survival was achieved with crystalloids and colloids to keep the patient near normovolemic. 100% O2 was given, as freely dissolved oxygen would actually make a contribution in this setting. To lower metabolic needs, the patient was kept at 34 degrees celcius. Anaesthesia also helped lower the metabolism and oxygen demand. The body’s physiological responses helped: hemoglobin doesn’t just transport O2, it’s also the most important carrier of CO2, so the low hemoglobin level also led to CO2 accumulation in peripheral tissue and was likely helping with tissue oxygenation by shifting the oxygen disassociation curve. He did also receive some matched plasma to help him coagulate, and plasma is also great volume expander.

The main points are keeping intravascular volume adequate and giving 100% oxygen if you don’t have blood available. This patient survived and is doing well. The full case report is well worth a read.

So, we don’t need blood transfusions anymore?
Well, obviously, this was a special case. But patients can be kept alive at a very low Hb. For hours, maybe days. But eventually, it will kill them. They get organ failure. Of course, it’s hard to make good studies on extreme anaemia, but we do have one group that guinea pigs for this stuff. Jehova’s Witnesses. So some smart guys pooled all Jehova Witness patients in the States over the past years and looked at the ones with a post operative Hb<8 g/dL. 300 patients in all. How did they do? After trying to level the field by taking age, heart disease and APACHEII score into account, they found this relationship:

Hb 1-2: Mortality 100%
Hb 2-3: Mortality 54%
Hb 3-4: Mortality 27%
Hb 4-5: Mortality 34%
Hb 5-6: Mortality 9%
Hb 7-8: Mortality 0%

Not a surprising finding, but interesting to get an idea of where the cut-off is. Below 5 g/dL is not where you want to be. And above 7 g/dL is looking really good. This fits pretty well with standard transfusion practice with a cut-off for healthy people of 8 g/dL and patients with heart disease 10 g/dL. Even if these levels are also subject to continuous debate.

Another interesting finding with this study was that the anaemic patients didn’t die straight away. I would have though they would end up with acute organ failure and/or cardiac arrest. But most of them managed to stay alive for days, or even over a week, with extremely low Hb levels. So anaemia isn’t the biggest emergency – hypovolemia is. And coagulopathy might also be a more pressing danger than low hemoglobin. But to secure a good outcome in the long run, it is important to also keep hemoglobin levels adequate. As always, for massive, uncontrollable bleeding the saying still holds true: If they’re bleeding – give blood.

Case report on the trauma patient with Hb 0.7 g/dL:
Intraoperative management of extreme hemodilution in a patient with a severed axillary artery, Anesth Analg, 2010.

Morbidity and mortality from Jehovas Witness patients with low Hb:
Mortality and morbidity in patients with very low postoperative Hb levels who decline blood transfusion, Transfusion, 2002.

Time course and etiology of death in patients with severe anemia, Transfusion, 2009.

This entry was posted in Anesthesia, Emergency Medicine, Intensive Care. Bookmark the permalink.

24 Responses to HB – HOW LOW CAN YOU GO?

  1. Pingback: ¿Anemia o hipovolemia? | Reanimación.net

  2. uthirapathi srinivasan says:

    yes ,

  3. sonali says:

    my lowest Hb level was near 6 and now it’s 7.7.

  4. maghawry says:

    is there any reference for this study??

    • Thomas D says:

      I’m not sure what you mean. Links to both the case report and the retrospective study on Jehova’s witnesses and low hemoglobin are at the end of the post.

  5. Pingback: CIRCULACIÓN – ¿Anemia o hipovolemia? |

  6. Pingback: The LITFL Review 077

  7. Anita says:

    The report you linked on Jehovah’s Witnesses is a little back dated. Is there a more recent one ?

    • Thomas D says:

      I haven’t seen anyone taking more recent numbers of post operative hemoglobin in Jehovah’s Witnesses and relate that to mortality, but I doubt they would be significantly different. Although we’ve made some progress since 1981-1994, that progress is also very much dependent on effective blood transfusion in bleeding patients. But it would certainly be interesting if someone crunched through more recent numbers.

  8. shari mann says:

    I survived and my blood level was 2. Of course the doctors kept saying “How can she function and You can talk??” But hey s’all good

  9. Zuhair says:

    Hypothermia would reduce metabolic needs for O2, but also will negatively affect coagulation…..so inducing hypothermia in this trauma patient down to 34 may not be in the interest of this patient???

  10. Bree says:

    My lowest level was 5 I had no idea it was so dangerous. My Level is low again I will definitely be putting in more effort to keep it at a healthy level.

  11. Tara says:

    My lowest blood level was 4.0. I walked in to the doctor’s office, pale as a ghost, but I was wide awake and talking. He looked stunned and thought I shouldn’t have been conscious. He sent me straight to the hospital for 3 units of blood. I had even done a 14 shift the night before. I’ve finally gotten my levels up to normal, but my iron is still drastically low. Just last week it was 6%.

  12. Cath says:

    I recently fell down my basement stairs and I have a very large hematoma on the back of my leg hipain area I called my doctors office, they told me I would be fine even though I told them that I had a basketball size bruise sticking out least 6 to 7 inches. He told me I would be fine just to put ice on it and take ibuprofen in tylenol. I slept for two days and called back again and they told me to go into the ER and my hemoglobin was down to 4.0 and that my kidneys and my liver took quite a hit with it being so low they said it was a critical level. I received two units of blood and I was discharged 3 days later and it was up to 8.4. I had no idea a bruise could cause my hemoglobin to go so low. I was not very happy with the first doctor that told me that I didn’t need to go and get checked out in the ER after falling. During the two days that I slept when I would get up I was shaking and I couldn’t hold on to things I would drop them I guess that is a sign of low hemoglobin I’m happy to know that those are also signs of low hemoglobin. I did find out that the medical doctor was talk to.

  13. ABDELLA ELTOUM says:

    Hb 6.2gm I couldn’t get the cause.

  14. M.P. says:

    My 4-year-old son’s level was 3 when we took him to the hospital last September – the same day he was diagnosed with Leukemia. It took all weekend of getting transfusions before it was safe for him to get a biopsy! Needless to say, I am thankful for those who donate blood!

  15. chandan pandey says:

    I am suffering from hemolytic anemia and my HB is 4.8.Is their is any sign of worry and what I should do to increase it

  16. m says:

    most times below 6 hb it is sign of cancer, gbu all

  17. Jo-Ann Saenz says:

    My 2 year old grandson had a 2.3 hemoglobin when
    admitted to hospital and given 2 blood transfusions.
    It was determined he had iron deficiency anemia.
    How much danger was he in with that hemoglobin


  18. Emily says:

    Hb 3-4: Mortality 27%
    Hb 4-5: Mortality 34%
    Why is the mortality rate higher for 4-5 than 3-4?

  19. Alisha Workman says:

    My Hgb is currently 3. I don’t want a transfusion and other than being a bit tired, feel relatively normal. I can’t get in for an infusion for a couple of weeks, so I figured it wasn’t that big of a deal. That count was done before my period and now, I still feel functional, but a little nauseous. Just googling to see if I should be worried. I don’t like the thought of possible side effects from transfusions years from now (that is what I have read, anyway).

  20. Jo says:

    4.8 came up on a routine blood screen and prompted a frantic call to me, from my doctor, at 5am, begging me to go to the emergency room. I sleepily asked, “…isn’t that something I could just take iron for?” She was like, “No! You must go to the emergency room immediately!” The sleep haze lifted quickly at that point, and I did as I was told. I remember the ER nurse doubted I could have had a reading that low as I was sitting there trying to relay what my doctor said to tell them. The ER doctor came up to both of us and pulled down my bottom eye lid and was like, “Yep, she’s low.” He even brought a med student or intern by to show her too. Received 4 units and an overnight stay. Left the hospital at 9.5

  21. Marcia says:

    So scary my HB keeps falling to 5.8 and when it’s at that level I feel so sick then I get my weekly transfusions and I’m good for a few days and then feel myself dropping back down and recently had to go to the hospital via ambulance because I dropped a 4.9 and seriously thought I was having a heart attack I’ve never been so scared in my life.

Leave a Reply to chandan pandey Cancel reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *